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Medium-voltage (MV) induction motors are widely used in the industry and are essential to industrial processes. The breakdown of these MV motors not only leads to high repair expenses but also causes extraordinary financial losses due to unexpected downtime. To provide reliable condition monitoring and protection for MV motors, this paper presents a comprehensive survey of the existing condition monitoring and protection methods in the following five areas: thermal protection and temperature estimation, stator insulation monitoring and fault detection, bearing fault detection, broken rotor bar/end-ring detection, and air gap eccentricity detection. For each category, the related features of MV motors are discussed; the effectiveness of the existing methods are discussed in terms of their robustness, accuracy, and implementation complexity. Recommendations for the future research in these areas are also presented.