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Piezoelectric Disc Stack Acoustic Transducer was mainly made of piezoelectric ceramic discs, which were bonded together concentrically with epoxy resin. Because of piezoelectric effect and the anisotropy characteristics of piezoelectric ceramic, when electronic signals were put on the power-lead electrodes in the thickness direction, the radial vibration generated and could be measured. In this article, the vibration model of the disc stack transducer was analyzed with the method of finite-element method. Transducer models were established with ANSYS 10.0 both in air and in water. The relationship between the transducer work frequency and its structure dimension was acquired. According to the radial vibration features and the finite element method simulation results, the structure of the acoustic transducer was optimized. Besides that, a series of experiments including impedance analysis and laser scanning vibration on the transducer sample was carried out to verify the simulation results. All the results conformed well.