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Composability means that the behaviour of an application, including its timing, is not affected by the absence or presence of other applications. It is required to be able to design, test, and verify applications independently. In this paper we define composable dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) hardware, and composable power management. We ensure that the functional and temporal behaviours of an application are not affected by other applications, even when they are power managed. For dataflow applications with worst-case execution times per task, our power management is also predictable, i.e. guarantees end-to-end real-time requirements, even when the application is mapped on multiple processors that are power managed independently. Our method can be used with various DVFS architectures, such as on-chip and off-chip VF regulators. Our FPGA implementation models a system with multiple tiles, each containing a processor with local memory running a real-time operating system (RTOS) and power management. Tiles are interconnected by a network on chip, and communicate using shared memories. Experiments indicate energy savings of 68% w.r.t. no power management, and 40% w.r.t. power gating only. We also demonstrate composability and predictability on the platform in the presence of power management.
Date of Conference: 1-3 Sept. 2010