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A widely used time-domain technique for motion or delay estimation between digitized ultrasound RF signals involves the maximization of a discrete pattern-matching function, usually the cross-correlation. To achieve sub-sample accuracy, the discrete pattern-matching function is interpolated using the values at the discrete maximizer and adjacent samples. In prior work, only 1-D fit, applied separately along the axial, lateral, and elevational axes, has been used to estimate the sub-sample motion in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D. In this paper, we explore the use of 2-D and 3-D polynomial fitting for this purpose. We quantify the estimation error in noise-free simulations using Field II and experiments with a commercial ultrasound machine. In simulated 2-D translational motions, function fitting with quartic spline polynomials leads to maximum bias of 0.2% of the sample spacing in the axial direction and 0.4% of the sample spacing in the lateral direction, corresponding to 38 nm and 1.31 μm, respectively. The maximum standard deviations were approximately 1% of the sample spacing in both the axial and the lateral directions, corresponding to 193 nm axially and 4.43 μm laterally. In simulated 1% axial strain, the same function fitting leads to mean absolute displacement estimation errors of 255 nm in the axial direction and 4.77 ?m in the lateral direction. In experiments with a linear array transducer, 2-D quartic spline fitting leads to maximum bias of 458 nm and 6.27 μm in the axial and the lateral directions, respectively. These results are more than one order of magnitude smaller than those obtained with separate 1-D fit when applied to the same data set. Simulations and experiments in 3-D yield similar results when comparing 3-D polynomial fitting with 1-D fitting along the axial, lateral, and elevational directions.
Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:57 , Issue: 11 )
Date of Publication: November 2010