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Incorporating dual-polarized operation and microphysics-based processing is becoming a challenge to future scientific and commercial airborne weather radars. This paper introduces a Monte Carlo simulation-based approach to address the theoretical basis and uncertainties of hydrometeor scattering along with sensor platform properties. Detailed characterizations of mixed-phase aviation hydrometeor hazards (rain, snow, hail, and mixtures) and the impact of melting on polarimetric radar signature at X-band frequency are discussed. A “single resolution cell” Monte Carlo dual-polarization variable simulation technique is described and then applied in different radar scanning scenarios based on numeric weather prediction model output weather fields. The produced dual-polarization signatures of an X-band array radar for different scan scenarios are analyzed.