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In this paper, recent progress of phase change memory (PCM) is reviewed. The electrical and thermal properties of phase change materials are surveyed with a focus on the scalability of the materials and their impact on device design. Innovations in the device structure, memory cell selector, and strategies for achieving multibit operation and 3-D, multilayer high-density memory arrays are described. The scaling properties of PCM are illustrated with recent experimental results using special device test structures and novel material synthesis. Factors affecting the reliability of PCM are discussed.