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A dual-modality imaging system for simultaneous fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and positron emission tomography (PET) of small animals has been developed. The system consists of a noncontact 360°-projection FMT module and a flat panel detector pair based PET module, which are mounted orthogonally for the sake of eliminating cross interference. The FMT images and PET data are simultaneously acquired by employing dynamic sampling mode. Phantom experiments, in which the localization and range of radioactive and fluorescence probes are exactly indicated, have been carried out to verify the feasibility of the system. An experimental tumor-bearing mouse is also scanned using the dual-modality simultaneous imaging system, the preliminary fluorescence tomographic images and PET images demonstrate the in vivo performance of the presented dual-modality system.