Skip to Main Content
No end is in sight for the transistor's downsizing and hence for the growth in IC functionality-much of which is now being applied to features that enhance home and entertainment electronics. Architectural changes in microprocessors, for instance, admit multimedia, communications, and portable applications. The mounting technical challenges and expense of doubling the circuit density and performance of ICs every 18 months are multiplying the number of national and international consortia and alliances. Such efforts are diverse. Some of them center on developing the technologies needed to shrink the transistor's dimensions below 0.1 /spl mu/m, others on achieving a dynamic RAM (DRAM) cell size smaller than 0.25 /spl mu/m/sup 2/. Yet others seek dominance in wireless technology or the establishment of industry standards.