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While conventional cryptographic security mechanisms are essential to the overall problem of securing wireless networks, they do not directly leverage the unique properties of the wireless domain to address security threats. The wireless medium is a powerful source of domain-specific information that can complement and enhance traditional security mechanisms. In this article we argue that new security paradigms which exploit physical layer properties of the wireless medium, such as the rapid spatial, spectral, and temporal decorrelation properties of the radio channel, can enhance confidentiality and authentication services. We outline some basic constructions for these services, and then provide a case study for how such strategies can be integrated into a broader security framework for a wireless network.