The influence of the Al content on the mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in GaN/AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures is studied by employing the ensemble Monte Carlo method. Using two interface polarization charge models, we calculate the room temperature low-field mobility at different Al compositions of the barrier layer ranging from 8% up to 35%. All relevant scattering mechanisms are considered to provide a quantitative description of the measured mobilities. We show that 2DEG transport in the heterostructures is mostly affected by dislocation scattering for all Al contents examined. The role of alloy scattering and interface roughness scattering is also discussed.