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The cytotoxicity of CoO nanoparticles on two micro algae (Navicula sp. and Chetoceros sp.) and Bivalve Gill cells was investigated. Cytotoxicity was determined by cellular morphological changes and LDH (Lactose Dehydrogenase), AP (Acid phosphatase) assays. It is observed that CoO nanoparticles have a detrimental effect on microalgae, promoting shrinkage and cell death. There was a significant increase in percentage of cell death when microalgae were exposed to different concentrations of CoO Nanoparticles. Increase in cell death was accompanied by elevation in LDH and acid phosphatase release indicating cell necrosis/cell injuries. Cell Necrosis was observed when Bivalve gill cells were exposed to different concentrations of CoO Nanoparticles.