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Ground Array Calibration using Lunar InSAR Imagery

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2 Author(s)
Feinian Wang ; University of Michigan ; Kamal Sarabandi

A new technique of phase calibrating the uplink of a ground array consisting of large reflector antennas is studied. The Moon is selected as a calibration target since it falls within the array far-field and avoids the positioning error problem encountered by low-Earth orbit (LEO) calibration targets. As a distributed radar target, the Moon cannot be directly used like point targets. A planetary synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging technique is employed to divide the antenna footprint on the lunar surface into many small pixels. Each array element can form its own SAR image of each pixel and the phase differences (interferograms) among these images can be used to perform phase calibration. Orthogonal pseudonoise (PN) codes are used at different array elements to distinguish their signals at a common receiver. A practical design of the calibration system parameters is illustrated. In order to evaluate the performance of this calibration technique, a high-fidelity 3-D lunar surface profile and scattering model is developed. Simulation results are presented to show the effects of multi-pixel averaging, surface undulation, baseline separation, and image misregistration on the proposed calibration performance.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems  (Volume:46 ,  Issue: 4 )