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This paper proposes a framework for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in electrical energy systems based on techniques developed in the context of invertibility of switched systems. In the absence of faults-the nominal mode of operation-the system behavior is described by one set of linear differential equations or more in the case of systems with natural switching behavior, e.g., power electronics systems. Faults are categorized as hard and soft. A hard fault causes abrupt changes in the system structure, which results in an uncontrolled transition from the nominal mode of operation to a faulty mode governed by a different set of differential equations. A soft fault causes a continuous change over time of certain system structure parameters, which results in unknown additive disturbances to the set(s) of differential equations governing the system dynamics. In this setup, the dynamic behavior of an electrical energy system (with possible natural switching) can be described by a switched state-space model where each mode is driven by possibly known and unknown inputs. The problem of detection and isolation of hard faults is equivalent to uniquely recovering the switching signal associated with uncontrolled transitions caused by hard faults. The problem of detection and isolation of soft faults is equivalent to recovering the unknown additive disturbance caused by the fault. Uniquely recovering both switching signal and unknown inputs is the concern of the (left) invertibility problem in switched systems, and we are able to adopt theoretical results on that problem, developed earlier, to the present FDI setting. The application of the proposed framework to fault detection and isolation in switching electrical networks is illustrated with several examples.
Date of Publication: Sept. 2011