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Land surface temperature and emissivity (LST&E) products are generated by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Terra satellite. These products are generated at different spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, resulting in discrepancies between them that are difficult to quantify, compounded by the fact that different retrieval algorithms are used to produce them. The highest spatial resolution MODIS emissivity product currently produced is from the day/night algorithm, which has a spatial resolution of 5 km. The lack of a high-spatial-resolution emissivity product from MODIS limits the usefulness of the data for a variety of applications and limits utilization with higher resolution products such as those from ASTER. This paper aims to address this problem by using the ASTER Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm, combined with an improved atmospheric correction method, to generate the LST&E products for MODIS at 1-km spatial resolution and for ASTER in a consistent manner. The rms differences between the ASTER and MODIS emissivities generated from TES over the southwestern U.S. were 0.013 at 8.6 μm and 0.0096 at 11 μm, with good correlations of up to 0.83. The validation with laboratory-measured sand samples from the Algodones and Kelso Dunes in CA showed a good agreement in spectral shape and magnitude, with mean emissivity differences in all bands of 0.009 and 0.010 for MODIS and ASTER, respectively. These differences are equivalent to approximately 0.6 K in the LST for a material at 300 K and at 11 μm.