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Energy storage systems (ESSs) are enabling technologies for well-established and new applications such as power peak shaving, electric vehicles, integration of renewable energies, etc. This paper presents a review of ESSs for transport and grid applications, covering several aspects as the storage technology, the main applications, and the power converters used to operate some of the energy storage technologies. Special attention is given to the different applications, providing a deep description of the system and addressing the most suitable storage technology. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the subject and to give an updated reference to nonspecialist, academic, and engineers in the field of power electronics.