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Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an IT architectural concept evolved from previous efforts to wrap or “encapsulate” data processing functionality in such a way that the consumer of this functionality need not know how or where it was done. However, in our experience, there exists a “competition” amongst multiple viewpoints that appears to be playing out with SOA. The research reported below reveals this tension between theory and practice regarding various aspects of SOA definition, adoption, use, justification and implementation. We conclude that the best way to understand SOA adoption and use is to view it through a lens of ‘maturity’ and a SOA maturity framework.