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III-V nanowires (NWs) on Si are promising building blocks for future nanoscale electrical and optical devices on Si platforms. We present position-controlled and orientation-controlled growth of InAs, GaAs, and InGaAs NWs on Si by selective-area growth, and discuss how to control growth directions of III-V NW on Si. Basic studies on III-V/Si interface showing heteroepitaxial growth with misfit dislocations and coherent growth without misfit dislocations are presented. Finally, we demonstrate the integrations of a III-V NW-based vertical surrounding-gate field-effect transistor and light-emitting diodes array on Si. These demonstrations could have broad applications in high-electron-mobility transistors, laser diodes, and photodiodes with a functionality not enabled by conventional NW devices.