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A new heuristic algorithm for large-scale job shop scheduling problem is proposed based on operation decomposition using bottleneck machine. It detects bottleneck machine by orthogonal experiment. Based on the operations which are processed on the bottleneck machine, the large-scale job shop scheduling problem is divided into three sub-problems: the scheduling problem of the operations on bottleneck machine, pre-bottleneck machines and post-bottleneck machines. The operations on bottleneck machine are first scheduled by dispatching rules, and the other two sub-problems are solved by genetic algorithm to subordinate the schedule of the operations on bottleneck machine. A number of simulation results shown that the scheduling strategy and technique for the problem can improve the computing efficiency and quality of the solution.