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Thermal annealing-induced vertical phase separation of copper phthalocyanine: Fullerene bulk heterojunction in organic photovoltaic cells

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6 Author(s)
Wei, H.X. ; Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices, Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, People’s Republic of China ; Li, J. ; Xu, Z.Q. ; Cai, Y.
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The effect of thermal annealing treatment on the morphology change in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) in organic photovoltaic cells was studied by photoemission spectroscopy. The results reveal that vertical phase separation upon annealing occurs in typical BHJ layer formed between planar molecule CuPc and spherical C60 with inhomogeneous concentration distribution in profile, varying from CuPc-rich near the air surface to C60-rich adjacent to the substrate interface. The morphology variation is associated with the difference in surface energy of CuPc and C60, leading to the accumulation of CuPc to the interface with air to lower the overall energy of the free surface.

Published in:

Applied Physics Letters  (Volume:97 ,  Issue: 8 )

Date of Publication:

Aug 2010

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