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In the view of the fact that the information of the fault characteristic of the train wheelset is submerged into the background noises and the conventional spectral analysis method has its own deficiency due to the fuzzy spectrum value created by the load variation and rotation speed fluctuation, a method of full period and uniform angle sampling is applied, which transfers the vibration signal from time domain into angular domain. The angular domain signal is transferred into corresponding characteristic spectrum using FFT. Through spectrum estimation and analysis, fault characteristic spectrum values of train wheelset components are acquired to distinguish their faults. The application indicates the method can distinguish the faults of train wheelset accurately and efficiently.