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Shape from shading (SFS) is an important method for such fields as surface measurement of an object. In order to improve the SFS 3D reconstruction accuracy, utilizing the fact that artificial immune optimization and particle swarm optimization algorithms can compensate for each other, a reconstruction method based on a hybrid immune particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper. The design and implementation of this hybrid algorithm is discussed in detail. A synthetic vase and a scene image are used to test the validation of the proposed method, and a comparison is made. Experiment results show that the proposed method can achieve higher accuracy and is also faster.