Skip to Main Content
One of the origins of error in the angle of arrival estimation of a signal is the response of the ground to the reflected waves from the target. In low-height target situations, this phenomenon can be so harrowing that it may result in much more error than thermal noise. In this article, two methods of fixed beam and double null are used as preliminary techniques to overcome the problem of low-altitude target angle estimation, and the optimum weights for beam-forming array radar are proposed. These beam-forming methods enable the radar to estimate the target angle precisely without the exact knowledge of the surface slope, whereas they are robust against diffuse and specular ground reflection components.