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China has been transforming from a highly centralized nation and land use policies to more market dominant systems. Bottom-up forces and local interactions begin to play more and more important roles in the process of rural-urban land conversion. A simulation model of rural-urban land conversion based on multi-agent systems was developed, which can simulate the interaction among different agents, such as residents, farmers, and governments. This model was applied to simulate rural-urban land conversion taking Changsha City, in China as a study area. Results show that this model can not only reflect basic characteristics of rural-urban land conversion, but also help provide land use decision-making support to government and urban planners.