Skip to Main Content
Most dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVS) techniques adjust only CPU parameters, however, recent embedded systems provide multiple adjustable clocks which can be independently tuned. When considering multiple components, energy optimal frequencies depend on task set characteristics such as the number of CPU and memory access cycles. In this work, we propose a realistic energy model considering multiple components with individually adjustable frequencies such as CPU, system bus and memory, and related task set characteristics. The model is validated on a real platform and shows less than 2% relative error compared to measured values. Based on the proposed energy model, we present an optimal static frequency assignment scheme for multiple DVS components to schedule a set of periodic realtime tasks. We simulate the energy gain of the proposed scheme compared to other DVS schemes for various task and system configurations, showing up to a 20% energy reduction.