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Traffic measurements provide critical input for a wide range of network management applications, including traffic engineering, accounting, and security analysis. Existing measurement tools collect traffic statistics based on some predetermined, inflexible concept of “flows.” They do not have sufficient built-in intelligence to understand the application requirements or adapt to the traffic conditions. Consequently, they have limited scalability with respect to the number of flows and the heterogeneity of monitoring applications. We present ProgME, a Programmable MEasurement architecture based on a novel concept of flowset-an arbitrary set of flows defined according to application requirements and/or traffic conditions. Through a simple flowset composition language, ProgME can incorporate application requirements, adapt itself to circumvent the scalability challenges posed by the large number of flows, and achieve a better application-perceived accuracy. The modular design of ProgME enables it to exploit the surging popularity of multicore processors to cope with 7-Gb/s line rate. ProgME can analyze and adapt to traffic statistics in real time. Using sequential hypothesis test, ProgME can achieve fast and scalable heavy hitter identification.