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This paper presents a novel automatic modulation classification (AMC) algorithm in wireless time division duplex (TDD) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems with adaptive modulation (AM). Based upon the maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) criterion, a classification method for digital quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes is developed that exploits the channel reciprocity in TDD systems and the receiver knowledge about the overall transmission data rate. The AMC algorithm enables the application of adaptive modulation in wireless OFDM systems without loss in the effective data rate caused by signaling of the bit allocation table (BAT). Numerical results show almost no performance loss in terms of the packet error ratio (PER) compared to the case with perfect knowledge of the modulation schemes if the proposed AMC technique is used.