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A novel technique for fault detection and classification in the extremely high-voltage transmission line using the fault transients is proposed in this paper. The novel technique, called wavelet singular entropy (WSE), incorporates the advantages of the wavelet transform, singular value decomposition, and Shannon entropy. WSE is capable of being immune to the noise in the fault transient and not being affected by the transient magnitude so it can be used to extract features automatically from fault transients and express the fault features intuitively and quantitatively even in the case of high-noise and low-magnitude fault transients. The WSE-based fault detection is performed in this paper, which proves the availability and superiority of WSE technique in fault detection. A novel algorithm based on WSE is put forward for fault classification and it is verified to be effective and reliable under various fault conditions, such as fault type, fault inception time, fault resistance, and fault location. Therefore, the proposed WSE-based fault detection and classification is feasible and has great potential in practical applications.