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The underwater target localization problem is one important application for underwater acoustic sensor networks. A novel passive source location algorithm for underwater acoustic sensor networks is proposed, which is suitable to both two-dimensional and three-dimensional networks. The proposed algorithm firstly studies the precision of directional of arrival (DOA) for underwater acoustic sensor array and applies it to set up the statistic model of target localization based on DOAs. According to the model, the maximum likelihood (ML) method is used to estimate the target Location based on DOAs by sensor array nodes. Lastly, the result of simulation has shown the application validity and studied the precision performance of the algorithm.