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This paper researches the optimization of injection strategies of polymer flooding in oil recovery. An optimal control problem (OCP) of a distributed parameter system (DPS) is established, in which the functional of performance index is profit maximum and the governing equations are the fluid equations in porous media. The control variables are chosen as the polymer concentrations and the switching time of a slug. The constraint conditions include boundary constraints and other inequality constraints. The method based on real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA) is presented for numerically solving the OCP. Finally, an example of the OCP for polymer flooding is exposed and the results show the effectiveness of the RGA method.