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A novel calibration approach to determine the coordinate transformation between the robot tool and the external axle worktable based on differential evolution algorithm is presented. The methodology can be divided into three different steps. Firstly, the transformation relationship between the robot wrist and the contact position sensor tool is calibrated. Secondly, the transformation relationship between the robot tool and the external axle worktable is determined by the robot and the contact position sensor joint measurement system. Finally, an adaptive differential evolution (ADE) algorithm is presented and employed to optimize the key parameters to improve the system precision. Based on the presented method, the robot system with external axle is calibrated successfully. The effectiveness of the presented approach is demonstrated via some real experiments.