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Scientific data sharing of water resources is an indispensable component of national fundamental data-sharing construction and the science and technology innovation system. To implement scientific data sharing of water resources, which covers a broad extension and a great variety of professional data, is a difficult task due to existence of complexity of technical and, more critically, non-technical factors, such as data policy, standards and sharing circumstance. In this paper, the development of water resources scientific data sharing is analyzed at home and abroad, and some concepts are presented regarding that. On the basis of practice on Scientific Data Sharing Project, the system of scientific data sharing of water resources is researched, and the technological standards, managing and servicing systems of scientific data sharing of water resources are proposed for the public as well as the scientific research sectors of the nation.