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Summary form only given. In this talk, we will explore the history, current status, and future prospects for the transistor. We review the 30+ year past, focusing primarily on the work-horse planar CMOSFET, as well as the incredible state of integrated electronics it has enabled. We look at the more recent past, where the “end of scaling” and death of the planar MOSFET has been repeatedly forecast, and discuss critical innovations on strained-silicon and high-k/metal-gate transistors which have extended MOSFET scaling. Next we look to the near future, to strong candidates for the generations of process technology to come and challenges which must be overcome to enable them. Finally, we peer into our crystal ball in the distant future and consider the viable options for the next switching element to continue the march of integrated electronics.