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As unknown environment for robot pose and environmental uncertainties, the robot localization and map building becomes more complex. A method based on Rao-Blackwellized particle Alter is proposed. First of all, summed up the shortcomings of traditional simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) based on standard particle Alter through the introduction. Such as algorithm complexity, lasting long time and unable to achieve calculation online. To solve this problem, a method is presented based on Rao-Blackwellized particle Alter, which is an algorithm that recursively estimates the full posterior distribution over robot pose and landmark locations, its time consumption and the number of landmarks become logarithmic relationship in the map, and little calculation, short time spending. The RBPF algorithmverifies is verified by simulation experiment. The results show that, Rao-Blackwellized particle Alter algorithm is feasible.