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The main sources of emission today are from the electric power and transportation sectors. One of the main goals of a cyber-physical energy system (CPES) is the integration of renewable energy sources and gridable vehicles (GVs) to maximize emission reduction. GVs can be used as loads, sources and energy storages in CPES. A large CPES is very complex considering all conventional and green distributed energy resources, dynamic data from sensors, and smart operations (e.g., charging/discharging, control, etc.) from/to the grid to reduce both cost and emission. If large number of GVs are connected to the electric grid randomly, peak load will be very high. The use of conventional thermal power plants will be economically expensive and environmentally unfriendly to sustain the electrified transportation. Intelligent scheduling and control of elements of energy systems have great potential for evolving a sustainable integrated electricity and transportation infrastructure. The maximum utilization of renewable energy sources using GVs for sustainable CPES (minimum cost and emission) is presented in this paper. Three models are described and results of the smart grid model show the highest potential for sustainability.
Date of Publication: Sept. 2010