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AC and dc microgrids (MGs) are key elements for integrating renewable and distributed energy resources as well as distributed energy-storage systems. In the last several years, efforts toward the standardization of these MGs have been made. In this sense, this paper presents the hierarchical control derived from ISA-95 and electrical dispatching standards to endow smartness and flexibility to MGs. The hierarchical control proposed consists of three levels: 1) The primary control is based on the droop method, including an output-impedance virtual loop; 2) the secondary control allows the restoration of the deviations produced by the primary control; and 3) the tertiary control manages the power flow between the MG and the external electrical distribution system. Results from a hierarchical-controlled MG are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Date of Publication: Jan. 2011