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In this paper, error analysis and accuracy improvement for on-wafer line-series-shunt calibration in broadband scattering parameter (S-parameter) measurements are presented with complete modeling of the resistive series/shunt standards, rather than the simple lumped assumptions that were basic requirements in previous studies. The associated parasitic effects in the models are estimated by the first-run results using lumped assumption. They are further updated iteratively, where higher order errors are analytically identified. Additionally, the de-embedded S -parameters are transformed for the reference impedance, based on the acquired characteristic impedance, which may differ from the measurement system in broadband operations. The proposed algorithm and calibration data are demonstrated by pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistors with conductor-back coplanar waveguides built on GaAs substrates with verifications of the thru-reflect-line calibration results.
Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:58 , Issue: 9 )
Date of Publication: Sept. 2010