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Summary form only given. Intensive development of industry, the use of new materials and technologies often poses a potential hazard to human health and the environment. Recent decades are characterized by particular growth of nanotechnology, using artificial nanomaterials that are based on nanoparticles with specific properties and significant advantages compared with conventional materials. Nanoparticles have large specific surface and size that commensurate with intracellular structures, the channel protein and DNA molecules, which provides them with high penetrating power. In this context the question of the injurious effect of nanoparticles on the cellular level becomes relevant. The main hypothesis of the damaging effect of carbon nanotubes involves the development of oxidative stress as the result of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and the initiation of signaling cascade of inflammatory reactions involving the transcription factors, such as nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) and AP-1 protein, which lead to the activation of a number of proinflammatory genes, namely II-8, II-6 and TNF-α. . Oxidative processes may also affect the lipid component of cell membranes.