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Because of their poor rigidity, the deformation of thin-walled workpieces caused by cutting force in NC milling is the main factor that decreases machining precision and increases aeronautical product cost. The straight side walls of aluminum LY12CZ workpieces are machined on a vertical machining center THA5656 and their errors are analyzed. Based on orthogonal tests, the deformation characters of the thin-walled workpieces are discussed under different cutting conditions. The research can provide support for machining deformation control and machining simulation model verification.