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It is very necessary to detect surface defects on plastic products during production process and post treatment. The research and application of automatic detection technology of surface defects on plastic products is supposed to greatly liberate the human workforce, improve the automated production level, and has wide application prospect. The development of machine vision's key technologies such as illumination system, CCD camera, image enhancement, image segmentation, image recognition, and so on has been explained in detail. Its application on detection for surface defects on plastic products such as plastic electronic components, strips, PVC building materials, films, leather, bottles, and so on is also presented briefly. Especially, it mainly focuses on the automatic detection of surface defects for injection products, and the automatic detection system is proposed. It is composed of the conveyor belt device, the image acquisition and processing software and PLC control device, et al.