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Photonic Circuits for Generating Modal, Spectral, and Polarization Entanglement

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4 Author(s)
Saleh, M.F. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Boston Univ., Boston, MA, USA ; Di Giuseppe, G. ; Saleh, B.E.A. ; Teich, M.C.

We consider the design of photonic circuits that make use of Ti:LiNbO3 diffused channel waveguides to generate photons with various combinations of modal, spectral, and polarization entanglement. Down-converted photon pairs are generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in a two-mode waveguide (TMW). We study a class of photonic circuits comprising: 1) a nonlinear periodically poled TMW structure; 2) a set of single-mode waveguide (SMW)- and TMW-based couplers arranged in such a way that they suitably separate the three photons comprising the SPDC process; and, for some applications, 3) a holographic Bragg grating that acts as a dichroic reflector. The first circuit produces two frequency-degenerate down-converted photons, each with even spatial parity, in two separate SMWs. Changing the parameters of the elements allows this same circuit to produce two nondegenerate down-converted photons that are entangled in frequency or simultaneously entangled in frequency and polarization. The second photonic circuit is designed to produce modal entanglement by distinguishing the photons on the basis of their frequencies. A modified version of this circuit can be used to generate photons that are doubly entangled in mode number and polarization. The third photonic circuit is designed to manage dispersion by converting modal, spectral, and polarization entanglement into path entanglement.

Published in:

Photonics Journal, IEEE  (Volume:2 ,  Issue: 5 )