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A variety of processes are utilized for gas transmission. It is important to optimize the operation conditions of these processes to promote efficiency. The operation efficiency of pipeline systems is combined with the purchase and sale prices of gas, the quantity bought and sold of gas and the management costs. Aimed at the maximum operation efficiency, an operation optimization model of gas pipelines is established with consideration of quantity input (output) constraints of each node, operation pressure constraints of pipelines, compressor constraints, valve constraints and hydraulic constraints of the pipeline system. The model adapts to all kinds of pipeline structures and it is solved by the method of adaptive genetic algorithm because of its non-linear form. Based on this, a computer program is developed to optimize the operation conditions of gas trunk lines, gas gathering and distribution network. Finally, an application example is given.