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As a non-contact automatic identification technology, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology plays an increasingly important role in social life. But the existence of potential safety problems has restricted the widespread application of RFID technology. In order to deal with the design challenges in the calculation of speed, communications capability and storage space to the low-cost radio frequency tags, this paper illustrates a new secure communication model based on the existing RFID security protocols. Through comparing and analyzing of the existing RFID tag security policies appeared in many papers, a new lightweight encryption algorithm (LEA) has been proposed based on the criterion of block cipher, especially the improving DES encryption algorithm. It does not require complex computing and high-strength encryption technology. The core components S-boxes are redesigned and implemented on FPGA in this paper, and the security performance of S-boxes is proved through the analysis of probability and statistics. This algorithm can effectively enhance the security in the low cost RFID system.