Skip to Main Content
This paper presents a unified method for optimal real and reactive power dispatch for the economic operation of power systems. As in other methods, the problem is decomposed into a P-optimization module and a Q-optimization module, but in this method both modules use the same generation cost-objective function. The control variables are generator real power outputs for the real power module; and generator reactive power outputs, shunt capacitors/reactors, and transformer tap settings for the reactive power module. The constraints are the operating limits of the control variables, power line flows, and bus voltages. The optimization problem is solved using the gradient projection method (GPM) which is used for the first time in the power systems study. The GPM allows the use of functional constraints without the need of penalty functions or Lagrange multipliers among other advantages. Mathematical models are developed to represent the sensitivity tivity relationships between dependent and control variables for both, real and reactive power, optimization modules, and thus eliminate the use of B-coefficients. Results of two test systems are presented and compared with conventional methods.