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Wireless video capsules can now carry out gastroenterological examinations. The images make it possible to analyze some diseases during postexamination, but the gastroenterologist could make a direct diagnosis if the video capsule integrated vision algorithms. The first step toward in situ diagnosis is the implementation of 3-D imaging techniques in the video capsule. By transmitting only the diagnosis instead of the images, the video capsule autonomy is increased. This paper focuses on the Cyclope project, an embedded active vision system that is able to provide 3-D and texture data in real time. The challenge is to realize this integrated sensor with constraints on size, consumption, and processing, which are inherent limitations of the video capsule. We present the hardware and software development of a wireless multispectral vision sensor which enables the transmission of the 3-D reconstruction of a scene in real time. An FPGA-based prototype has been designed to show the proof of concept. Experiments in the laboratory, in vitro, and in vivo on a pig have been performed to determine the performance of the 3-D vision system. A roadmap towardthe integrated system is set out.