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Viaducts are widely used in the modern high speed railway construction. In order to ensure the high speed train running safely, passenger's comfort and environment protecting, it is essential that the aerodynamic characteristic of the high speed train moving on the viaduct will been researched. These researches will provide some engineering reference for the high speed railway construction. The studying methods of the aerodynamic characteristic include theoretical computing, numerical simulation and experimentation. Using the commercial soft Fluent, the numerical research on the noise barrier height change of the monoline viaduct having effect on the aerodynamic characteristic of the high speed train has been made. The calculation precision has been obtained with the suitable meshing, selecting appropriate turbulent model and adopting the right boundary conditions. The aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the high speed train are analysed. The simulation results show that the aerodynamic forces and moments on the high speed train have some discipline with the height change of the noise barrier. Finally, the relative best aerodynamic height of the noise barrier is found by optimization.