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The expensive cost of testing and characterizing parametric variations is one of the most critical issues for today's nanoscale manufacturing process. In this paper, we propose a new technique, referred to as Bayesian Virtual Probe (BVP), to efficiently measure, characterize and monitor spatial variations posed by manufacturing uncertainties. In particular, the proposed BVP method borrows the idea of Bayesian inference and information theory from statistics to determine an optimal set of sampling locations where test structures should be deployed and measured to monitor spatial variations with maximum accuracy. Our industrial examples with silicon measurement data demonstrate that the proposed BVP method offers superior accuracy (1.5× error reduction) over the VP approach that was recently developed in .