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CMOS active pixel image sensors for highly integrated imaging systems

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7 Author(s)
Mendis, S.K. ; Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Technol., Pasadena, CA, USA ; Kemeny, S.E. ; Gee, R.C. ; Pain, B.
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A family of CMOS-based active pixel image sensors (APSs) that are inherently compatible with the integration of on-chip signal processing circuitry is reported. The image sensors were fabricated using commercially available 2-μm CMOS processes and both p-well and n-well implementations were explored. The arrays feature random access, 5-V operation and transistor-transistor logic (TTL) compatible control signals. Methods of on-chip suppression of fixed pattern noise to less than 0.1% saturation are demonstrated. The baseline design achieved a pixel size of 40 μm×40 μm with 26% fill-factor. Array sizes of 28×28 elements and 128×128 elements have been fabricated and characterized. Typical output conversion gain is 3.7 μV/e- for the p-well devices and 6.5 μV/e- for the n-well devices. Input referred read noise of 28 e- rms corresponding to a dynamic range of 76 dB was achieved. Characterization of various photogate pixel designs and a photodiode design is reported. Photoresponse variations for different pixel designs are discussed

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Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:32 ,  Issue: 2 )