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Water quality model is a useful tool to evaluate the future state of river water through evaluation of actual pollution loading or different management options. Based on the human brain physiology research, artificial neural network(ANN), which simulates the structure and mechanism of the human brain, is a kind of dynamic information processing system that eventually achieves certain functions of the human brain. At present, there are hundreds of neural network approaches, and also BP neural network is one of the most frequently used techniques in recent years, whose application in environmental quality assessment of environmental science field was presented in this paper. In this paper, BP neural network was used to establish the landscape water quality evaluation system. This paper also gave an optimization method of BP artificial neural network, which mainly used MATLAB programming whose toolbox provided a function of BP network to avoid complicated mathematical calculations and cumbersome code editor. On the basis of sampling and monitoring of water quality continuously, artificial neural network was used here to establish landscape water evaluation model in order to evaluate the landscape water quality objectively and quickly.