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Filamentous fungal strains were isolated from the leaves and fruits of Camellia oleifera with the anthracnose disease. The pathogenecity was tested following Koch's postulates. Our analyses identified that all 18 isolated strains were pathogenic to Camellia oleifera. The molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the most virulent isolate confirmed that it belonged to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. 165 strains were isolated from the leaves of Camellia oleifera, which were collected from Henyang, Liuyang, Changde etc in Hunan province. There were three entophytic bacteria strains Y13, S2, H18 against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. And more, Strain Y13 was antagonistic against different Pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporium, Thanatephorus cucumeris, Alternaria solan, PestalotiopsisStey, and its inhibition rates were 84.3%, 81.8%, 80.0% and 80.1%. The result showed that Strain Y13 had a wider antibacterial spectrum and the strong antagonistic activity. Our analyses and Strain Y13 study should help future identification, prevention and treatment of the Camellia oleifera anthracnose disease.