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An efficient passivity test based on canonical projector techniques is proposed for descriptor systems (DSs) widely encountered in circuit and system modeling. The test features a natural flow that first evaluates the index of a DS, followed by possible decoupling into its proper and improper subsystems. Explicit state-space formulations for respective subsystems are derived to facilitate further processing such as model order reduction and/or passivity enforcement. Efficient projector construction and a fast generalized Hamiltonian test for the proper-part passivity are also elaborated. Numerical examples then confirm the superiority of the proposed method over existing passivity tests for DSs based on linear matrix inequalities or skew-Hamiltonian/Hamiltonian matrix pencils.